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Carbon Capture and Storage Technology: A futuristic way to combat climate change by 2040

Carbon Capture and Storage technology

As the world continues to pollute the environment with heavy vehicles and coal-burning factories. The need for technology that combats the CO2 emission also increases. Carbon capture and storage technology is one of the leading futuristic technology, being presented as a savior of the environment.

Many countries including, the United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, a total of 110 countries have pledged to achieve zero carbon emission by the ending of the year 2040. They are executing several carbon emission methods, But carbon capture and storage technology is the most hyped one, due to its unique method of CO2 control.

Carbon Capture technology works on reducing carbon by taking a pre-emptive measure of filtering the CO2 directly from the air. This technology filters up to 55-90% of CO2 that emits from the starting source. The aim is to prevent the industries from blowing out tons of CO2 from chimneys in the environment, to combat carbon dioxide emission. Carbon capture and storage technology is a relatively new concept as this also advocates storage the CO2.

Do we really need Carbon Capture and Storage Technology?

If you see the previous records of carbon emissions after mass industrialization, you will be wondering why people don’t take carbon issues seriously. The last recorded CO2 emission is above 400 PPM/Year. This number is alarming as it’s higher than ever. Thus, Carbon Capture and storage technology is necessary to combat climate change.

How Effective carbon Sequestration method is?

Carbon Sequestration Technology is a viable solution to excessive carbon in the atmosphere.  This technology is helping to reduce carbon footprints, that too in cheap.

History of Carbon Capture and Storage technology

Carbon Capture technology is several decades-old technologies. The first carbon capture plant was started in 1938. The first large-scale mission of dumping the captured CO2 under the ground was performed in Sharon Ridge oilfield in Texas in 1972. As time passes, and the industrial revolution is taking shape, carbon continues to emit more and more.

The capturing and storage of CO2 looked like a weakened approach. Hence, researchers found another way of handling this excessive captured amount of CO2. They proposed transforming CO2  into something useful. Now, captured carbon dioxide can be used to produce plastics, carbonated drinks, or even grow plants!

Credit: Freethink

How Carbon Capture Technology Will Reduce Carbon Footprints

Carbon Capture and Storage technology is designed to capture CO2 directly from large manufacturing units such as cement factories, coal Mines, and large construction sites. The goal is to capture CO2 right after exhaling from the chimneys. Captured CO2 passes through a compression process to form a dense fluid. This Dense fluid can be transported by pipelines and shipping to a remote place.  After processing and transporting, the captured CO2 needs to be stored underground.

Once stored in geographical locations, it is unlikely that CO2 to re-enter the atmosphere. However, it’s a debatable topic whether the dumping of large quantities of captured CO2 into the earth will produce some adverse effects or not

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Process of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

Many technologies are already in existence to reduce carbon emissions. But the major focus of all these technologies is, how to efficiently separate CO2 from the air on a low budget and time. Carbon capture and storage technology also advocate the same. Carbon Capture technology works in three stages:

Capturing of CO2

Capturing of CO2 is done from the origin points such as fossil fuel, biomass energy plant, natural gas electric power generation plants, factories with high CO2 emissions, synthetic fuel plants, natural gas processing plants, and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. After capturing the CO2, the filtration process starts.
The only threat infiltration processes is sulfur and water, the components of CO2 that can increase corrosion in the plant. A scrubbing separation process is used to tackle this adversary. Capturing of CO2 is done by  any of the 3 methods listed below:

  1. Pre-combustion Technique
  2. Post-combustion Technique
  3. Oxy-fuel combustion Technique

Separation of CO2

The separation of CO2 is done with the following Methods:

  1. Membrane
  2. Oxyfuel combustion
  3. Absorption
  4. Adsorption
  5. Multiphase absorption
  6. Chemical looping combustion
  7. Calcium looping
  8. Cryogenic

Storage of CO2

After the completion of capturing and separation of CO2 is done. It is sent to suitable storage sites. Transportation of Captured CO2 is done with ships and pipelines. Pipelines are the cheapest option to transport CO2. Ships can also be used for transportation and dumping CO2 under the ground.

Pros of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

The advantages of Carbon Capture And Storage Technology is listed below:

  • It has the potential to mitigate almost 90% of the carbon dioxide emitted by industries.
  • A huge time in R&D has already been given to Carbon Capture and Storage technology.
  • It costs $40 for a tonne of CO2  treatment in CCS technology, which is cost-effective.
  • CCS will treat 10% of total CO2 emission by the year 2030
  • CCS  technology has the potential to become a $1 trillion market by 2030.
  • The stored CO2 can be used to generate power and fuel, later.
  • CO2 has the capability to enrich concrete, hence it can be used to make infrastructure stronger.
  • Trapped CO2 can be used to bolster manufacturing operations such as chemicals plastics and soft forms. It’s necessary because without providing incentives to industries it’s unlikely that they will invest a big amount in CO2 treatment plants.
  • CCS Technology will also generate a large number of employment because it needs large treatment plants to work. Many NGO’s, Activists, individual who cares about climate change actively working in this field and continuously update people with new information on their website, portal, and social channels. If you are one who needs any kind of website development service, TWS is here to get things done for you.

Limitations of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

There are some limitation of CCS technology, described below:

  1. Carbon Capture technology needs big treatment plants in order to work accurately.
  2. It demands millions of dollars to set up big treatment plants.
  3. Carbon capture technology can be used for industries and factories only. It has no use with vehicles, airplanes, and other small-sized carbon-emitting machines.
  4. Stored CO2 has a possibility of leakage during earthquakes and may produce catastrophic effects.

All in All

CCS Technology is being presented as a lifesaver for the countries who pledged at Paris agreement to achieve zero-carbon emission targets by the year 2040. CCS Technology itself has the target to reduce global warming by 2ºC by capturing 400 million tons of Carbon Dioxide by the year 2025. In 2021, CO2 emission will surpass 417 PPM, higher than what it was 2.5 to 5 million years ago. Hence CCS technology is the only hope with up to 90% success rate.

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